In the first of two robustness tests, the authors randomized the participation of “individuals” in treatment and control groups. Next, they assign each unit in the treatment groups and the original controls a random probability of sampling, followed by a weighted regression in which weights are expressed in reversal of the assigned probability. The authors` simulations focus on point estimates for key outcome indicators. In other words, higher wages, higher productivity and better innovation survive robustness tests. In the end, pacts seem to play an inclusive negotiating role and must be distinguished from old-style concession negotiations. Brendle T, Heinbach WD (2013) Opening clauses in collective agreements: more flexibility in rescuing employment? Rev Econ/Economics Directory 64 (2): 159-192 ← 26. In systems where collective bargaining takes place primarily at the enterprise level, workplace representation and coverage of collective agreements go hand in hand. At the same time, Chapter 2 shows that, in these countries, the proportion of workers affected by any form of representation of workers in the workplace is lower (while it tends to be higher in multi-tiered systems characterized by complementary sectoral and professional agreements). As a result, the shift to collective bargaining at the corporate level could result in a decrease in coverage. The above analysis has shown that collective bargaining tends to result in lower wage dispersion. The increase in wage condensation in collective bargaining may be due to a greater misdirection of wages with the productivity of a company or sector, since centralization or coordination of negotiations partly determines compensation by factors other than the company or sector. In this sense, lower wage flexibility at the sub-national level and a lower dispersion of wages could be seen as two sides of the same coin.20 But could it not be said that the decline in trade unionism has led to a clear lack of workers` voices, the provision of essential microeconomic flexibility? If there is a case of prima facie for measures that support the voice, the disadvantage is the increase in bargaining power that participates in measures that promote greater representation of workers. The problem of negotiations means that employers can be expected to approve institutions that do not have enough power.
We thus return to the attractiveness of the German model and the method of employment representation, since the Works Council has set practical limits on rent, including a peace obligation. In fact, we used to assume that a German-like system could separate the factors determining the size of an exploitation`s common surplus from the factors that determine its distribution.  Magruder, J. (2012), “High unemployment yet few small firms: The role of centralized bargaining in South Africa,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Vol. In this regard, it is essential to have wage coordination mechanisms that allow social partners to negotiate for different groups of workers, in order to develop a common negotiating strategy and achieve common wage objectives. This helps to ensure that trade unions and employers take into account the economic situation and the macroeconomic impact of collective agreements on competitiveness. In countries such as Austria, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and partly Germany and Japan, wage coordination is quite strong. United Kingdom: a series of reforms in the 1980s by the Thatcher government reduced the role of trade unions and decentralized collective bargaining first to an intermediate level (1987-1993) and then to the enterprise level. A fourth group includes countries that have collective bargaining systems where collective bargaining predominates at the enterprise level, but also play a role in sectoral negotiations or where there are certain forms of regulatory mechanisms